When you own a share in a company, the fact that you own that share gives you certain rights.
These shareholder rights include the ability to vote on certain corporate matters, typically on matters of corporate policy and who will make up the board of directors of the company.
The voting takes place at the site of the company's Annual General Meeting (AGM). In order to exercise the right to vote, the shareholder can either attend the meeting and vote in person or alternatively they can mail in their vote ( referred to as vote by proxy ).
The number of votes one may cast is based on the number of whole shares owned as of a specific date.
It is important to note that shareholders who own fractional shares in companies do not have voting rights on fractional share rights.